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Local area network. A limited distance (typically under a few kilometers or a couple of miles)
high-speed network (typically 4 to 100 Mbps) that supports many computers.
Media Access Control Layer. A sub-layer of the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the ISO OSI Model
responsible for media control.
Maximum Transmission Unit
Network Address Translator as defined by RFC 1631. Enables a LAN to use one set of IP address for
internal traffic. A NAT box located where the LAN meets the Internet provides the necessary IP address
translation. This helps provide a sort of firewall and allow for a wider address range to be used
internally without danger of conflict.
Point-to-Point-Protocol. The successor to SLIP, PPP provides router-to-router and host-to-network
connections over both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.
PPPoA (RFC 2364)
The Point-to-Point Protocol(PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol
datagrams over point-to-point links. This document describes the use of ATM Adaptation Layer 5
(AAL5) for framing PPP encapsulated packets.
PPPoE (RFC 2516)
This document describes how to build PPP sessions and encapsulate PPP packets over Ethernet. PPP
over Ethernet (PPPoE) provides the ability to connect a network of hosts over a simple bridging access
device to a remote Access Concentrator.
Permanent Virtual Circuit. Connection-oriented permanent leased line circuit between end-stations on
a network over a separate ATM circuit.
Request for Comments. The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet suite of
protocols and related experiments. Not all RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards
are written up as RFCs
Multi-protocol encapsulation over AAL-5. Two encapsulation methods for carrying network interconnect
traffic over ATM AAL-5. The first method allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single ATM
The protocol of a carried PDU is identified by prefixing the PDU by an IEEE 802.2 Logical
Link Control (LLC) header.
This method is in the following called "LLC Encapsulation". The second
method does higher-layer protocol multiplexing implicitly by ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs).
It is in the
following called "VC Based Multiplexing".
A system responsible for making decisions about which of several paths network (or Internet) traffic will
follow. To do this, it uses a routing protocol to gain information about the network and algorithms to
choose the best route based on several criteria known as "routing metrics.
Spanning-Tree Bridge Protocol (STP). Part of an IEEE standard. A mechanism for detecting and
preventing loops from occurring in a multi-bridged environment. When bridges connect three or more
LAN segments, a loop can occur. Because a bridge forwards all packets that are not recognized as
being local, some packets can circulate for long periods of time, eventually degrading system
performance. This algorithm ensures only one path connects any pair of stations, selecting one bridge
as the 'root' bridge, with the highest priority one as identifier, from which all paths should radiate.
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